Several years ago there was an active political reform movement in Egypt which endeavored to make changes in the authoritarian rule of President Mubarak. The Kefaya Movement for Change began forming alliances with various groups including judges in order to create a society based on the concept of free elections and adherence to constitutional law. Amir El-Chobaky of the Al Ahram Center notes: “People were emboldened by the Kegaya movement. If they could criticize the President, the biggest boss of all, then factory workers and journalists and others could also criticize their (smaller) bosses.” However, that spirit weakened and was replaced by individuals protesting and, being without collective power, they invariably lost to those in power.
The ineffectiveness of a reform movement enabled the Mubarak government to continue its corruption and ineffectiveness allowing the Egyptian economy to fail in the need of providing jobs to all members of society. This raises the question as to what must occur before Egyptians become furious at their government and undertake either violence or some other means to institute change? If a violent change occurs, how would that impact peace in the Middle East?